Pedro de Alvarado (1485-1541) was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the Conquest of the Aztecs in Central Mexico in 1519 and led the Conquest of the Maya in 1523. At first, Alvarado allied himself with the Kakchiquel nation in his conquest of their traditional rivals, the Quiché nation, but his cruelties alienated the Kakchiquel, and he needed several years to stamp out resistance in the region. Pedro de Alvarado (1485-1541) fue un español conquistador que participó en la conquista de los aztecas en México Central en 1519 y llevó a la conquista de los mayas en 1523. Pedro de Alvarado has the distinction … He took part in the Invasions of the Aztecs, Maya and Inca. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. On the night of June 30, 1520, known as noche triste (“sad night”), Cortes and his men attempted to leave the city quietly but were spotted by the Aztecs. He would abandon his duties as governor from time to time in search of more conquest and adventure. Alvarado was blond and fair, with blue eyes and pale skin that fascinated the natives of the New World. His actions led to the death of Montezuma. Llegó a La Española, desde donde se trasladaría a Cuba, y en 1518 participó en la expedición que, enviada por Diego Velázquez, exploró la península de Yucatán y las costas del golfo de México. In Tenochtitlán (Mexico City), tensions were high between the indigenous people and the Spanish. Er hatte fünf Brüder: Gonzalo, Jorge, Gómez, Hernando und Juan. He arrived in Honduras in 1539 and died while attempting to quell an Indian uprising in central Mexico. In 1523 Alvarado conquered the Quiché and Cakchiquel of Guatemala, and in 1524 he founded Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (Ciudad Vieja; present Antigua, Guatemala). Fierce fighting erupted, and Alvarado, who was leading the rear guard, narrowly escaped, thanks largely to a spectacular leap across a canal. He ordered massacres of women and children, razed entire villages, enslaved thousands, and threw indigenous people to his dogs when they displeased him. He went to Hispaniola (1510), sailed in the expedition (1518) of Juan de Grijalva, and was the chief lieutenant of Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. His parents were Leonor de Contreras and Gomez de Alvarado. Pedro de Alvarado, junto a sus hermanos, decidió, en 1510 viajar al Nuevo Mundo. For a long time afterward, the bridge was known as "Alvarado's Leap.". Alvarado accompanied Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico (1519–21). When Aztecs gathered in the square to celebrate the festival of Toxcatl, Alvarado feared an uprising and ordered his men to strike first. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. Alvarado is best remembered in Guatemala, where he is even more reviled than is Hernán Cortés in Mexico. Well known for his skills as a soldier, he also played major roles in the conquest of Cuba and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. He was named the governor of Honduras and occasionally went there to enforce his claim. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. Referred to as "Tonatiuh" or "Sun God" by the Aztecs because of his blonde hair and white skin, Alvarado was violent, cruel and ruthless, even for a conquistador for whom such traits were practically a given. Alvarado's singular inhumanity drew the attention of Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas, the enlightened Dominican who was the Great Defender of the Indians. Fue hijo de Gómez de Alvarado y Leonor de Contreras, quienes criaron al pequeño junto a sus cuatro hermanos y una hermana gemela. However, the Quiches refused to cooperate. After the Conquest of Guatemala, he served as governor of the region, although he continued to campaign until his death in 1541. Cover title: procesos de residencia, instruidos contra Pedro de Alvarado y Nuño de Guzman "Fragments del proceso de residencia instruido contra Nuño de Guzman, en averiguacion del tormento y muerte que mandó dar a Caltzontzin, rey de Mechoacan; precedidos de una noticia histórica de la vida y hechos de aquel conquistador. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. Although he did not mention Alvarado by name, Las Casas clearly referred to him: Alvarado returned to Mexico to campaign in the Mexican northwest around 1540. He had a twin sister named Sara and brothers named Gomez, Juan, Gonzalo, and Jorge. Well known for his skills as a soldier, he also played major roles in the conquest of Cuba and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. Pedro de Alvarado, (born c. 1485, Badajoz, Castile [Spain]—died 1541, in or near Guadalajara, New Spain [now in Mexico]), Spanish conquistador who helped conquer Mexico and Central America for Spain in the 16th century. More Spanish arrived to help colonize, govern, and rule the remnants of the Aztec Empire. Tomás Povedano(1906) pinta a Pedro de Alvarado(†1541), gobernador de Guatemala. In 1534 Alvarado led an unlicensed expedition to Quito, but in 1535 he sold his ships and munitions to Diego de Almagro, one of Francisco Pizarro’s captains. By 1532 all of the major kingdoms had fallen, and their citizens had been given by Alvarado to his men as enslaved people. With Moctezuma dead, the attacks increased until the night of June 30, when the Spanish tried to sneak out of the city under cover of darkness. Hearing of the great wealth in the Andes, he set out with ships and men to conquer Quito. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of Yucatan and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernan Cortes. Pedro de Alvarado (Badajoz, 1485 - Guadalajara, actual México, 1541) Conquistador español. According to the Spanish, they slaughtered the nobles because they had proof that the festivities were a prelude to an attack designed to kill all of the Spanish in the city. On May 20, 1520, the nobles gathered for their traditional celebration of Toxcatl. Alvarado was named the governor of Guatemala and established a city there, near the site of present-day Antigua. Pedro de Alvarado was a Spanish conquistador credited with the conquest of much of Central America, including Guatemala and El Salvador. Cortés selected Pedro de Alvarado to head south and investigate, and in 1523 he gathered up 400 men, many of whom had horses, and several thousand indigenous allies. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was born in 1485 in the city of Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain. Born in Badajoz, Extr… Even today, Alvarado's cruelty is legendary: Guatemalans who do not know much about their history will recoil at his name. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras nació alrededor del año 1485 en la provincia de Extremadura, España. Predictably, the fiercely independent K'iche ignored it. About 200 Aztec chiefs were massacred by Alvarado’s men, who were in turn besieged in their quarters by an angry mob. Con las misiones militares y de exploraciones de los europeos, el mapa del mundo cambió desde 1492. Omissions? He was considered affable by his fellow Spaniards and the other conquistadores trusted him. The Spanish routed the K'iche in February 1524 at the battle of El Pinal, ending the greatest hope of large-scale native resistance in Central America. Among the loot discovered were ledgers of sorts detailing tribute payments from neighboring tribes and cultures, including several considerable payments from a culture known as the K'iche far to the south. Pedro de Alvarado en Tenochtitlan. Even the Kaqchikels were rewarded with enslavement. They had already asked Alvarado for permission, which he had granted. According to the Spanish account, he was killed by stones thrown by his own people. Pedro de Alvarado Coanacochtzin Cortés quickly made an alliance with the Kaqchikel, traditional bitter enemies of the K'iche. Cortés often entrusted Alvarado with important missions and reconnaissance. Alvarado was first placed in charge of Tenochtitlán (later Mexico City) in 1520 when Cortes left the city to meet a rival Spanish force on the coast. He would eventually become Cortés' right-hand man. In 1518, Hernán Cortés mounted an expedition to explore and conquer the mainland, and Alvarado and his brothers quickly signed on. Conocido como “Tonatiuh” o “ dios del sol “ por los aztecas debido de su pelo rubio y piel blanca, Alvarado fue violento, cruel y despiadado, incluso para un conquistador para quienes estaban … Alvarado went to Santo Domingo in 1510 and in 1518 commanded one of Juan de Grijalba’s ships sent from Cuba to explore the Yucatán Peninsula. After the conquest of Tenochtitlán, Cortés was forced to head back to the coast to face Pánfilo de Narváez, who had brought soldiers from Cuba to take him into custody. By the time he arrived, it had already been captured by Sebastian de Benalcazar on behalf of the Pizarro brothers. All of Central America had been devastated by disease in the previous years, but the K'iche were still able to put 10,000 warriors into the field, led by K'iche warlord Tecún Umán. The K'iche Kingdom, located in the city of Utatlán near present-day Quetzaltenango in Guatwasa, was by far the strongest of the kingdoms in the lands that had once been home to the Mayan Empire. Updates? Upon his return, Cortes learned of the attack and uprising and quickly planned a nighttime retreat from Tenochtitlán. Pedro's exact year of birth is unknown: it was probably sometime between 1485 and 1495. Alvarado was not content to sit idly in Guatemala counting his newfound wealth. With the mighty K'iche defeated and their capital city of Utatlán in ruins, Alvarado was able to pick off the remaining kingdoms one by one. He had no legitimate children but did father several illegitimate ones. Cortés, with the help of Alvarado, was able to regroup and retake the city, setting himself up as governor. In 1524 Alvarado became governor and captain-general of Guatemala, and formed settlements on the coast of Honduras. Cortés had been successful because of his ability to turn Mexican ethnic groups against one another, and Alvarado had learned his lessons well. Todos los hermanos, incluyendo a Pedro, cruzaron el océano Atlántico rumbo a América en el año 1510.Como muchos de los exploradores de la época, llegaron a La Española, específic… Pedro de Alvarado war der älteste Sohn des Kommandanten von Lobon und Puebla, Diego Gómez de Alvarado, und dessen Frau Mexía de Sandoval. Pedro de Alvarado Badajozban született Diego Gómez de Alvarado y Mexía de Sandoval gyermekeként. Pedro de Alvarado (1485-1541) was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the Conquest of the Aztecs in Central Mexico in 1519 and led the Conquest of the Maya in 1523. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. When Pedro de Alvarado and his men arrived at Utatlan they asked the Mayans to surrender peacefully. Alvarado's inhumanity to native populations is depicted in v… During the escape, Alvarado allegedly made a mighty leap from one of the bridges. In 1542, Las Casas wrote "A Short History of the Destruction of the Indies," in which he railed against the abuses committed by the conquistadores. In about 1510 he went to the New World with several brothers and an uncle. Alvarado, Pedro de pā´áµºrō dā älvärä´áµºÅ [ key], 1486–1541, Spanish conquistador. Fundada hacia 1325 por pueblos nahuas llegados desde la legendaria y norteña Aztlán, Tenochtitlan era una de las primeras megápolis del continente americano y capital de un imperio de vastas dimensiones. Still, there is no denying that Alvarado had a profound effect on the history of Guatemala and Central America in general, even if most of it was negative. Óleo sobre lienzo. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. A native of Badajóz, son of the commander of Lobon, he was made a Knight of the Order of Santiago in reward for his exploits in Mexico and Central America. The noble class of Aztecs seethed at the audacious invaders, who were laying claim to their wealth, property, and women. View the profiles of people named Pedro De Alvarado. His longtime native companion, Doña Luisa Xicotencatl, was a Tlaxcalan Princess given to him by the lords of Tlaxcala when they made an alliance with the Spanish. He then returned to Guatemala and in 1537 to Spain, where he was confirmed as governor of Guatemala for seven years and was given a charter to explore Mexico. En 1524, Pedro de Alvarado ordena la fundación de la primera capital colonial de Guatemala: Santiago de los Caballeros inicialmente en Iximché (Tecpán), luego refundada en 1527 en el valle de Almolonga (hoy el barrio de San Miguel Escobar en Ciudad Vieja, Sacatepéquez) tras una revuelta indígena. He served for 17 years. In February 1519 he accompanied the army, led from Cuba by Hernán Cortés, that was to conquer Mexico. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the ​Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. This town became the first capital of the captaincy general of Guatemala, later including much of Central America, of which Alvarado was governor (1527–31). Not much is known about his early life before he earned a name for himself as an adventurous and fearless conquistador, though folk legends give several accounts of his early exploits which however lack credibility. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pedro-de-Alvarado, The Civil War - Biography of Pedro Menendez, How Stuff Works - History - Biography of Pedro De Alvarado, The Catholic Encylopedia - Biography of Pedro de Alvarado. Pedro de Alvarado - Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpeðɾo ðe alβaˈɾaðo]; Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. His K'iche opponent Tecún Umán is a national hero whose likeness appears on the 1/2 Quetzal note. Pedro de Alvarado was sent out by Hernán Cortés with 120 horsemen, 300 footsoldiers and several hundred Cholula and Tlaxcala auxiliaries; he was engaged in the conquest of the highlands of Guatemala from 1523 to 1527. Corrections? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Of the companions of Cortez, and among the superior officers of his army, Pedro de Alvarado became the most famous in history. No matter what the cause, the Spanish fell on the unarmed nobles, slaughtering thousands. Cortés left Alvarado in charge while he was gone. When he decided to go to the Andes, he took with him thousands of Central Americans to work and fight for him; most of them died en route or once they got there. Like many conquistadores, he was from the province of Extremadura—the city of Badajoz, in his case. He married twice: first to Spanish noblewoman Francisca de la Cueva, who was related to the powerful Duke of Albuquerque, and then later, after her death, to Beatriz de la Cueva, who survived him and briefly became governor in 1541. A message was sent to the effect that there had been a change in management in Mexico City but the payments should continue. The Spanish were under a state of siege for several days before they sent Emperor Moctezuma to speak to the crowd. In 1541, he died in present-day Michoacán when a horse rolled over on him during a battle. Alvarado considered fighting the other Spaniards for it, but he ultimately allowed them to buy him off. 1510-ben testvéreivel: Gonzalóval, Jorgével, Gómezszel, Hernandóval és Juannal, illetve nagybátyjukkal, Diego de Alvarado y Mexía de Sandovallal Hispaniolába költözött.. A Kubából Yucatánba tartó, 1518-as Juan de Grijalva-expedícióban vezető szerepet töltött be. Cortés returned to Mexico and quickly tried to restore order, but the effort was in vain. The villages and towns he gave away to his conquistadores formed the basis for some current municipal divisions and his experiments with moving conquered people around resulted in some cultural exchange among the Maya. They soon found work as soldiers in the various expeditions of conquest that originated on Hispaniola, including the brutal conquest of Cuba. Alvarado heard rumors that the Mexica were going to rise up and slaughter the intruders during the festival, so he ordered a pre-emptive attack. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. 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